Exploring HTTP and PKI

This blog article is an attempt to present the upper layers of OSI reference model from the perspective of network studies. The three upper layers of OSI reference model – Session, Presentation and Application are also sometimes combined into One as Application Layer in general but some protocols...
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Configuring Cisco router as a DHCP client

A Cisco router interface can be configured to obtain an IP Address from DHCP server. Router(config-if)# ip address dhcp Once I was configuring a router via console which I had to replace with the current production router in the site over the weekend. It was a broadcast network; I had...
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QoS Congestion Avoidance

Tail Drop Tail Drop is when the packets are dropped when they arrive on a congested interface.Tail Drop is not just bad for voice packets but for data packets as well. It also impacts the efficiency of network bandwidth utilization. When the Output Queue is full and packets ...
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CBWFQ and LLQ

Class Based Weighted Fair Queueing – CBWFQ CBWFQ is a modern congestion management technique and it is not advised for Voice and Video traffic, since both of them need strict priorities.  CBWFQ uses the Cisco MQC command structure. With CBWFQ you can define traffic classes and assign guaranteed...
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Custom Queuing and Priority Queuing

Custom Queuing (CQ) This is a Legacy technology for Congestion management. There are no dynamic Queues generated in CQ, instead you have to manually define the Queues. A maximum of 16 Queues can be defined and System Queue is Queue – 0 which is used for Layer-2 keepalives...
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